Wednesday, February 29, 2012

Dr. Peter F. Penner defends with success habilitation thesis at Károli Gáspár Reformed University


Dr. Peter F. Penner defended yesterday with success his habilitation thesis: "Missionale Hermeneutik: Biblische Texte kontextuell und relevant lesen" (230 p.) at the Károli Gáspár University in the Reformed Church. 

In two public lectures on Missional Hermeneutics: Its possible place in Biblical interpretation and Lokale Theologien, Kontextualisierung und die Rolle der Missionalen Hermeneutik he argued for the importance of reading scripture through a so-called "missional" lense. His main aim was to provide a corrective to a result-oriented, pragmatic missiology. On the question what contribution this approach provides to a new mission praxis he responded that it enables first of all a denominational dialogue, which is very important in the context of Central and Eastern Europe, where there is so much division and jealousy. It helps to focus on a "common mission praxis", because of the centrality of the concept of missio Dei. He continued that a missional hermeneutik also helps to focus on the Kingdom of God. Penner further argued that by reflecting on and evaluating what others have done in mission, and by assessing what the real issues are in the context of Central and Eastern Europe a new mission perspective for the church in mission could be born.     

Examiner’s Report

1.     Assessment of the thesis

Dr. Penner observes that since the World Mission conference in Edinburgh 1910 significant changes have taken place in the discipline of Missiology, influenced by developments in world history and world Christianity. Not only the mission praxis, but also the theology of mission underwent significant changes. The preparation and training for missionaries focused almost exclusively on the praxis of mission as part of practical theology, since the middle of the 20th century sociology and anthropological studies were added to the curriculum, at the expense of the biblical, historical and systematic theology disciplines. These developments did not fail to impact the theological quality of the discipline of missiology (pg. 1-3).
A strong tendency had come up in the praxis of mission to focus on the quantitative result of mission and evangelism through the church growth movement.  The focus increasingly turned to questions of culture and context which led to an awareness of the variety of expressions of Christian faith, and sharp theological discussions on what the concept and goal of mission is. As a result missiology today deals not only with the praxis but also with the theology of mission (pg.3-4). The churches in the “sogenannten Ostblock” have joined these missiological discussions only recently.
These new developments in missiology led to a focus on a contextual reading of the bible text. Previously a “biblical theology of mission” used only selected biblical texts to define certain mission themes from a biblical perspective.  This new approach builds on the research work of bible scholars, experimenting with new hermeneutical approaches in which the local or global context is emphasized, especially for the two-thirds world.  Penner rightly observes, that “die meisten osteuropäischen Versuche der missiologischen Arbeit mit dem biblischen Text gehen leider noch nicht über die bereits vorliegenden westeuropäischen oder nordamerikanischen Vorbilder hinaus und blicken nur gelegentlich auf Arbeiten aus der Zwei-Drittel-Welt.“ (pg. 5)
In the light of these developments the central question of Penner in this habilitation thesis is clearly stated as not to develop a biblical mission theology, a missional hermeneutic: to assess “inwieweit eigentlich eine missionale hermeneutic notwendig ist, …  um dem biblischen Text gerecht zu werden, der im Missionskontext geschrieben und an eine missionale Gemeinschaft adressiert wurde.“ (pg. 6).
Penner is thorough in his analysis and balanced, fair and honest in his evaluations, e.g. as he states that the church of the Reformation “verpasste es auf die missionale Stimme des biblischen Textes zu hören”  (pg. 156). It is important that throughout his study he keeps the focus on both the role of individual and of the community in God’s mission, which connects a strong “evangelical” focus on the individual and an ecumenical focus on community.
Peter Penner defines missiology as the discipline which earlier was called mission theology and in the Middle Ages still was referred to as propaganda fidei as “lebendig und muss die christliche Botschaft dem Kontext gemäß abwandeln, ohne dabei das Evangelium prinzipiell zu verändern.” (pg. 29) He attempts to clarify the concept of mission by dealing with a number of related concepts in the New Testament which could clarify its meaning.  However, the concept “missional” is not clarified. Sometimes mission theology and missiology are used as synonyms, sometimes as differing from each other.  The use of the term “Osteuropa” seems to lacks consistency. Sometimes it is used in the political way of the former “Ostblock”, sometimes in a geographical way as part of Central and Eastern Europe.

2.     Originality, actuality and significance of the thesis

With his habilitation thesis Dr. Peter F. Penner offers an important contribution to the field of missiology in that he provides a corrective to the so called managerial missiology, the pragmatic, result-oriented missiology, which has a weak biblical foundation. These tendencies are also present in Central and Eastern Europe (pg. 182).  His emphasis on the involvement of the missional community in the missio Dei “weitet sich der Horizont der Einzelnen und der Gemeinschaft und relativiert sich der eigene Anspruch in der eigenen Sache der Mission, ohne dabei die Absolute Gottes zu relativieren“ (pg. 178). 
The significance of the thesis lays also in the fact that his approach to dialogue with text oriented hermeneutical approaches as the historical-critical method and with social hermeneutic approaches as the liberation theology with the purpose to assess how these can be used for a missional hermeneutic, opens new avenues of interaction between missiologists and biblical scholars. 
The fact that Penner seeks to introduce the discussion on the missional hermeneutic in the academic discourse of biblical scholars and missiologists of Central and Eastern Europe is important for the role of the churches in the post-communist societies society. Penner convincingly shows how important this approach is for developing a relevant contextual theology for a post-communist context as he deals with the themes of poverty and richness (Pg. 106ff, 145, 146 and 149), reconciliation and Vergangenheitsbewältigung (pg. 143), but also with the responsibility of individual and community in God’s mission and the role of the Holy Spirit. 
The candidate shows academic courage in addressing sensitive and important issues like the problem of social injustice and the call for an orthopraxis in relation to solidarity with the poor!  He also displays academic modesty as he does not present final conclusions but invites both biblical scholars and missiologists to enter into the discussion on developing a missional hermeneutic, which is “weniger eine Methode, vielmehr geht es darum die Intention, die der Text tragt, herauszustellen und sie bei der Interpretation einzelner Abschnitte nicht zu vergessen. Eine solche Weise des Lesens des Biblischen Text wird nicht nur die Exegese bestimmen, sonder auch die darauf bauende Theologie und durchdringt damit alle Bereiche der akademischen theologischen Arbeit! (pg. 179). The candidate thus manages to link theory and mission praxis in a dynamic way.
This study into the need for a missional hermeneutic is also significant for the Post-Christianum discussion in missiology as it sheds new light on the life of the early Church and on what it means to be a minority church instead of a majority church.  
Penner thus makes an original contribution to knowledge in its field which is suitable for publication

3.     Structure of the thesis

The task Penner sets himself to do in a clearly structured manner is to prove the thesis of the necessity of a missional hermeneutic (pg 7).
In the first chapter he deals with the historical–critical method, as a hermeneutic to build on, but which method he expands through a “missional” interpretation using keywords of the Acts of the Apostles in order to define the concept of mission and their field of meaning.
In the second chapter he questions the liberation theology hermeneutic as a representative of a social hermeneutic whether it contains useful elements for a better interpretation of the biblical text and whether in this way it could be part of a missional hermeneutic. He focuses on the theme of salvation for the poor which plays an important role in the liberation theology, using again texts of the Acts of the Apostles. Then he deals with the theme of holistic peace in order look into the question of contextuality in liberation theology, using a case study of evangelical groups in the former CIS and their wrestling with their context and identify in relation to peace service.
In the third chapter of his thesis Penner deals with a synthesis of the historical critical method and a missional hermeneutic taking into consideration the social hermeneutic, especially that of liberation theology (pg. 8). He convincingly proves “dass der biblische Text selbst von der Mission Gottes und der Metaerzählung erzählt, dass der Text missional ist, weil er zur Mission anspornt”. In this chapter he studies the meaning of the Holy Spirit in Acts as the Spirit of mission as well as the mission prayer of the messianic community and the Jerusalem council. It is remarkable that Old Testament texts are interpreted in a missional way and thus become a model for the readers.  He deals thus with the missional hermeneutic in the context of the missiological discussions on the biblical text (pg. 7).  
In this study Penner seeks not only to bring missiology and the biblical sciences together in an interdisciplinary way, but also to present and introduce a discussion in Central and Eastern Europe in and in continental Europe which till now had been limited to the Anglo-American context (pg. 9). Since the concept of mission and the approach to the biblical text in Central and Eastern Europe is often different, new contextual impulses and unique contributions from this region could be given to the discussion on developing a missional hermeneutic elsewhere.

4.     Literature

The candidate demonstrates a thorough knowledge of literature relevant to its subject and general field. He also shows an ability to exercise critical and analytical judgement of that literature.
The candidate consistently follows the path he sets out to do, thoroughly analysing and comparing and entering in debate with a wide variety of German and English sources of different continents and Christian traditions which shows clearly how he is at home in this subject. He is as much aware of the ongoing debate in the Gospel and Our Culture Network with scholars like George Hunsberger and Darrell Guder as he is of the discourse in the BISAM study group of the International Association of Mission Studies. With an academic openness combined with great diligence and German Gründlichkeit he fulfils this task.
At the same time he does not hide his own position and bias, drawing the reader in a gentle but sometimes provocative way into the discussions, offering a wealth of material for further study in the well documented footnotes, which wets the appetite for entering deeper into the discussion.  At the same time he succeeds in keeping his study focused, making clear his decisions on the choices he had made in limiting his thesis.
Although it is not the main focus of his study, it is a pity that not more sources are used to illustrate the relationship to and the contextualization of the study into the Central and Eastern European context. Obviously, the task ahead for scholars of Central and Eastern Europe is to translate the discussion on the missional hermeneutic into their own context, and to relate it to their own biblical and missiological discourses in the vernacular.  

5.     Methodologies

This study displays a mastery of appropriate methodology and theoretical material and the ability to communicate this complex field in clear way to its readers.  Its interdisciplinary method extends to both the biblical sciences and missiology. Throughout the methodology used is made explicit, like e.g. words studies used to define the concept of mission show that the instruments and the approach of the historical-critical method is helpful and necessary, but also the limitations of a certain methodology are presented clearly (pg 40).

6.     Publication

The thesis is worthy of being the basis of a publication, not only in German, but also in English, and Hungarian and in some of the local languages of Central and Eastern Europe.
Some minor corrections are needed:
pg. 158: David Bosch, Transforming Mission is published not in 1992 but in 1991.
pg. 180: 2nd par: The local perspective seems to disappear, only the regional and global remain.
passim: Stász J. should be: Szász J.
passim: Szegények mindig lesznek valetek should be …………veletek.

7.     Conduct and Presentation

The present study meets internationally recognized standards for the conduct and presentation of research in its field. The formal presentation can be considered as an excellent model. The references are always exact. The thesis is written in a good and readable style, and has a clear structure, closing each chapter and thematic treatment with a clear summary. He clearly manages throughout to show that the academic discourse he embarked on is of great relevance for the praxis of mission, without falling into pragmatism. Moreover, he succeeds in shedding new, fresh and sometimes surprising light on well-known passages through the method he employs. He also succeeds to keep the attention of the reader when he maps out what may be unknown territory to him or her.  

8.     Remarks, comments and questions

1.       The title of the study is formulated in a rather general way: “Missionale Hermeneutik: biblische Texte kontextuell und relevant lesen“ whereas throughout the texts and illustrations are taken from the books of Acts. It is stated that the method can be extended to other books of the Bible. How could a missional hermeneutic be applied to the reading of an OT book like Leviticus or a NT book like Hebrews?
2.       As Stephen Neill supposedly stated: “when everything is mission, nothing is mission”.   On pg. 230 the candidate states in relation to the challenge of a dialogue on the missional hermeneutic that it can serve to overcome the crisis in mission theology and praxis but also in the biblical hermeneutic. “Dabei besteht die Gefahr, Mission so allumfassen zu präsentieren, dass sie sich am Ende ganz verliert, oder ihr aber einengend eine geschützte Nische zuzuweisen, in der es vor allem um die pragmatische Praxis der Mission geht. Beides wäre fatal nicht nur für die Mission der Kirche, sondern auch für die gesamte Theologie als Wissenschaft.“ In what way could this danger be avoided in a situation where the concept of mission is already very broad, and almost identical to all activities in the church?
3.       The explicit intend of this study is to initiate a discussion on developing a missional hermeneutic in Central and Eastern Europe. When the candidate would be asked to design a research project with scholars from different Christian traditions and different countries in this region, with what three main issues would he start? How to go about setting up such a research project in a situation where divisions even within Christian traditions are so sharp.  How would he explain the relevance of this project to the churches in order for them to support and bless this project?

On the basis of the above assessment I recommend the thesis to be accepted and to allow the candidate to proceed to the public lectures.

Budapest, 18th February 2012.

                Prof. Dr. habil Anne-Marie Kool
Central and Eastern European Institute for Mission Studies
of the Károli Gáspár University in the Reformed Church.

Sunday, February 19, 2012

Ha nem teszek semmit sem

Ha nem teszek semmit sem
  2011-03-03 20:01:25, csütörtök

Riczu Péter feldolgozásában:

Túrmezei Erzsébet: Ha nem teszek semmit sem

Most nem sietek,
most nem rohanok,
most nem tervezek,
most nem akarok,
most nem teszek semmit sem,
csak engedem, hogy szeressen az Isten.

Most megnyugoszom,
most elpihenek
békén, szabadon,
mint gyenge gyerek,
és nem teszek semmit sem,
csak engedem, hogy szeressen az Isten.

S míg ölel a fény
és ölel a csend,
és árad belém,
és újjáteremt,
míg nem teszek semmit sem,
csak engedem, hogy szeressen az Isten,

új gyümölcs terem,
másoknak terem,
érik csendesen
erő, győzelem...
ha nem teszek semmit sem,
csak engedem, hogy szeressen az Isten.

Maradj a helyeden

Maradj a helyeden
  2011-03-03 20:00:08, csütörtök
Túrmezei Erzsébet: Maradj a helyeden

Maradj a helyeden
ahol Isten látni akar!
Ő tudja mi használ, s mi fenyeget,
elrejt, ha kell, be is takar!

Maradj a posztodon! Ott a helyed.
Ha elfogadtad, amit ő ígért,
a legjobb dolog: hinni!
Az Ő szent lényét sérti a ,,miért",
és a te Igéd: bízni!

Maradj a helyeden, ha fárasztó is,
és a feladat nehéz,
az Úr ismeri szíved titkait,
Ő rád szeretettel néz.
A világ csak kínoz és elárul,
fordítsd el tőle arcod!
Az Úr irgalmán szíved elámul,
csak Őt dicsérje hangod!
Krisztus Megváltód! Ő a Vezéred,
ha nehéz úton vezet,
tanítja az engedelmességet,
s életed boldog lehet!
Ő már előre kiválasztotta,
utad merre vezessen,
lépésről lépésre eléd hozza!
Te maradj a helyeden!
...... ........... ........... ......

Friday, February 17, 2012

Give Hungary a Chance -- Statement by the Hungarian American Coalition

As Hungarian Americans who sincerely value and have actively promoted the bilateral relationship between Hungary, our former homeland, and the United States, our (adopted) home, we are deeply concerned by the tone of the harsh criticism in the mainstream U.S. and European media towards the Hungarian government.

As the country took over the EU presidency in January 2011, the Green and Socialist members of the European Parliament launched an attack against Prime Minister Orbán for silencing his critics with an allegedly undemocratic media law. Since then, Hungary’s new constitution has been repeatedly criticized, and the European Commission threatened to introduce sanctions against Hungary if it does not change certain cardinal laws approved by the Hungarian Parliament. Throughout this process, the conservative Orbán government, with a two-thirds parliamentary majority, has been falsely depicted as anti-democratic, dictatorial and untrustworthy. These accusations have exacerbated the already serious economic crisis in the country as Hungary negotiates with the EU and the IMF to obtain a standby loan.

While exaggerated and often unfounded criticism may serve the interests of the fragmented Hungarian Socialist-liberal opposition, the interests of the EU and the US would be much better served by allowing checks and balances to work through the Hungarian political system. Democratically elected institutions, including but not limited to the Parliament, are able to carry out this task, if given time to do their work. The Orbán government has stated repeatedly it is prepared to alter laws, if necessary, as long as the changes meet the requirements of the Hungarian legal system. For example, the much-maligned media law has been changed, but even before the enacted changes, scathing criticism of the government could be widely heard and read in the free Hungarian press. As widespread criticism of the government shows, the opposition has had every opportunity to protest and demonstrate against the government. This is what we expect in free and truly open societies.

Hungary’s current Socialist-liberal opposition has lost all credibility with the Hungarian public, because the country’s present difficulties were caused in large part by their disastrous policies between 2002-2010. The opposition groups clearly believe it serves their interest to destroy the reputation of the Orbán government. However, to many fellow Hungarians, their disregard for the potentially dire economic consequences for their homeland is incomprehensible. Orbán’s Fidesz party was swept into office as the overwhelming choice of a deeply dissatisfied Hungarian electorate. They vividly recall that the same Socialist-liberal opposition that fears for democracy today raised no concerns about violations of democracy or human rights on the October 23 national holiday in 2006 when, on their “watch”, civilians and innocent bystanders were attacked, arrested and falsely charged in Budapest by the police, many of whom were masked and had their badges covered to conceal their identities.

Many Hungarians also remember that the government of the Socialist-liberal coalition failed to protect innocent citizens in northeast Hungary, by allowing the “Magyar Garda”, a paramilitary organization of the far-right, to openly intimidate members of the Roma community. It was the Fidesz government who took steps to curb the Magyar Garda.

The man whose character and intentions have been so shrilly attacked is 48 year- old Viktor Orbán. To many, he is a leader with a dynamic vision and strong conviction to see it through; to others, he is a political daredevil or autocrat. Yet, he has done exactly what he promised he would if given a large mandate: to finish the long overdue system change begun, but not completed in 1989, when communism fell in Hungary. He promised a thorough restructuring of the country, including a new constitution, an aggressive economic program with bold changes in entitlement programs, job creation, debt reduction, and tax and education reform. He pledged to restore and strengthen values important to Hungarian identity, such as Hungary’s cultural traditions, and its commitment to assist and reconnect Hungary with Hungarians in the Carpathian Basin and in the diaspora. He asked the voters’ support for finding a way to serve and protect Hungarian interests within the European Union and the Trans-Atlantic Alliance.

So why should Hungary now be given a chance? Because it is important to remember that the new Hungarian basic law (constitution) entered into force only recently, on January 1st of this year. The political reality is that in Hungary, an ideological schism exists between the right and the left, and Prime Minister Orbán has forced his government’s reforms with great speed – and with some unfortunate mistakes. To counter the stagnation they saw in the previous government, Fidesz promised seismic changes when they came to power. While we believe they have had good intentions, their tactics and implementation strategy have at times been inadequate, which frustrates many who support their efforts at broad reform. The sheer number of new laws – 350 were passed by the Parliament in the past two years - may have been done at too fast a pace, and that is why we recommend allowing the Constitutional Court sufficient time to render opinions, dismiss or amend some of these cardinal laws: it is a work in progress.

Hungary is a small but proud European nation that deeply values its long-held commitment to freedom. While constructive criticism is welcome and can provide the right incentives, excessive, acerbic and often totally politically motivated pressure is counterproductive. More often than not, these attacks embolden Hungary’s far-right radical Jobbik party, who represent radical elements in Hungary, espousing intolerance, hatred and anti-Semitism.

Hungary must be given a chance to govern now that these structural and constitutional reforms have been enacted. Yes, critics can and should be vigilant and push for further changes and corrections if necessary. But political power-plays by the EU and others do not help – they are unacceptable, and more importantly, they are dangerous. Hungary’s harshest critics certainly do not espouse the goal of strengthening the far right, but their tactics may well have this effect.

We urge true friends of Hungary to tone down the unproductive rhetoric and to remember Hungary is a friend and ally. Hungary has proven its historic devotion to European democratic values, and must be given a chance to begin to put its economic house in order, and continue to function as a useful member of the Trans-Atlantic Alliance and the European Union, as it has so often done in the past.

Washington, DC, February 17, 2012

February 17, 2012 | Washington, DC


Monday, February 13, 2012

Remény a reménytelen helyzetben -- Fekete Imre

2012. február 9 – Friss tudósítás a szabadkai menekültekről
Már tíz napja tart a szibériai eredetű nagy hideg itt Európában. Szerbiában mindenhol nagy hó van és különleges állapotot rendeltek el, az iskolákban például szünetel a tanítás. A menekültek helyzete is kritikusan alakult, akik a magyar határtól 15km-re vannak nejlonsátraikban. Sokan közülük kéz-láb sebekkel vagy tüdőgyulladással lázasan fekszenek a sátraikban. Ebben a nehéz helyzetben maga Isten sietett segítségünkre a következő módon, Pál apostola Rómaiakhoz írt levele 8.28 verse szerint”Jól tudjuk,hogy Isten azoknak,akik őt szeretik…mindent javukra fordít”. Természetesen nem értettük, ez a helyzet hogyan lehetne javunkra nekünk és különösképpen a menekülteknek? Eddig a rendőrség zaklatta kollégáinkat, akik segíteni akartak, a Vöröskeresztnek pedig megtiltották a segítségnyújtást. Meghallotta azonban a média és a bulvársajtó mindezt, akik szeretik a szenzációt és a rendkívüli eseményeket. Most a Kelet-Európa Missziót keresik, hogy adjunk konkrét, hiteles tájékoztatást a menekültek helyzetéről. A bulvársajtóban fényképek és ilyen címek olvashatók: „Emberek fagyoskodnak nejlonsátrakban a mínusz 20 fokos hidegben, a Kelet-Európa Misszió segít nekik”. A hatóságok is felfigyeltek ezekre a hírekre és Szabadka rendőrkapitánya, Varga Tibor kollégánkkal együtt, civil ruhában végigjárta a menekültek sátrait. Másnap a különleges helyzetre való tekintettel kirendeltek a menekülteknek egy olyan panziót, amely már nem működik. Ezen a helyen matracokon alszanak, de már van fűtés és alapvető higiénia a számukra. A menekültek nagyon félnek, ezért egy részük (kb. 40 fő) még mindig a sátrakban lakik. Többségüket azonban már átszállítottuk a panzióba. Számukra garanciát jelent, ha a Vöröskereszttel együttműködve a Misszió munkatársai is velük vannak és segítik a kommunikációt. Nagyon nehéz anyagi helyzetben van a Vöröskereszt: nincs pénzük és nincsenek eszközeik, ezért továbbra is szeretnének, ha a Kelet-Európa Misszió segítene a projektben. Szükség volna téli cipőkre, kabátokra, plédekre, sapkákra, sálakra. A pénz adományból alap élelmiszereket,és téli cipőket veszünk. A menekülteknek hálás köszönetét is szeretnénk tolmácsolni kedves szponzorainknak, akik eddig is segítettetek! Velünk együtt nagyon hálásak a kapott segítségért!
(Nem tudjuk,hogy védett helyen, a panzióban meddig tartózkodhatnak. Lehet ,hogy a szibériai nagy hideg elmúltával ismét mehetnek vissza elhagyott sátraikba? Ez komoly ima témánk,Isten segítségét és tanácsát kérjük hogy adjon végleges megoldást a menekülteknek.)
Mellékeljük a legújabb videofelvételeket, ahol látható a menekültek jelenlegi helyzete.
1. A január 9-én zajlott legújabb látogatásunk során készítettük a város fotósával.
Kollégánk, Varga Tibor nyilatkozik szerb nyelven a médiának. Részletesen elmondja a helyzet kialakulását, múlt év szeptemberétől mai napig:
2. A Pannon TV részletes riportot készített, melyet egész Szerbiában leadtak és a Magyar Televízió is átvette:
Szívélyes üdvözlettel,
Fekete Imre
Kelet-Európa Misszió Alapítvány

Saturday, February 11, 2012

MATHEM teaching week 2 - a picture impression

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Skating in the Netherlands -- also in my area of birth: Kinderdijk!

Laatste kans om te schaatsen: langs de Kinderdijk en op de Keizersgracht

door Niels Posthumus

De dooi zet morgen in, en dat vinden veel Nederlanders spijtig. Massaal zochten we daarom vandaag nog snel het ijs op. Zo werd in Amsterdam vanavond voor het eerst in 15 jaar weer de Keizersrace gehouden. En veel toerrijders schaatsten eerder vandaag al langs de molens van Kinderdijk of reden op eigen houtje alsnog de Elfstedentocht.

Langs de Amsterdamse Keizersgracht verzamelden zich vanavond duizenden mensen om de Keizersrace te aanschouwen. Minister van Sport Edith Schippers loste het startschot.

Deelnemers aan de sprintwedstrijd legden een afstand van 150 meter af tussen de Leidsestraat en de Nieuwe Spiegelstraat. Ook enkele professionele schaatsers deden mee, zoals Jan Bos bij de heren en Annette Gerritsen bij de dames.

Maar ook op heel veel andere plekken werd geschaatst. Nederlanders gingen vandaag massaal het ijs op:

Ook gingen voor het eerst in 20 jaar weer mensen met paarden het IJsselmeer op. Dat gebeurde in de Arrensleetocht bij Hindelopen, waar het ijs dik genoeg was om achttien grote Friese paarden te houden. De folklore was met een dansgroep in klederdracht en een viswijvenkoor compleet. Alle rijders waren in klassieke kleding.

Arrensleetocht op IJsselmeer:

Op veel plekken in het Nederland werden vandaag nog toertochten georganiseerd. Een van de mooiste was waarschijnlijk de schaatsmolentocht in Alblasserwaard. Die ging onder meer langs de molens van Kinderdijk over afstanden 25, 50 en 75 kilometer.

Schaatsen langs de prachtige Kinderdijk (10 km from where I was born, amk):

En dan waren er natuurlijk de mensen die niet konden accepteren dat de Elfstedentocht niet doorging. Zij gingen zelf het ijs in Friesland op. Op de route van de Elfstedentocht werd vanaf vanmorgen vroeg al erg veel geschaatst. Dit zijn beelden van schaatsers op de Zwette in de buurt Leeuwarden.

Toch de Elfstedentocht geschaatst:
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Friday, February 10, 2012

Theologen na eeuwen weg uit Utrecht -- Willem Bouwman

UTRECHT - Wie theologie wil gaan studeren, kan straks niet meer terecht aan de Universiteit
Utrecht. Aan die universiteit zijn sinds 1634 ‘de kweekelingen voor den hervormden
godsdienst’ gevormd.

De orthodoxe reputatie van de faculteit raakte omstreden door het professoraat van J.J.P.
Valeton, sinds 1877 hoogleraar Oude Testament en een omzichtig beoefenaar van de Bijbelkritiek.
Volgens Abraham Kuyper liet Valeton de faculteit zo diep zinken, ‘dat niemand die de
belijdenis der vaderen liefheeft, daarheen zijn zoon zenden mag’. Kuyper had in 1880 de Vrije
Universiteit gesticht, waar ‘de belijdenis der vaderen’ in ere was hersteld.

Het gevoelen van Kuyper leefde ook bij de studenten die niet met hem in Doleantie gingen en de
gereformeerde waarheid in de Hervormde Kerk bleven verdedigen. Zij beklaagden zich erover dat
geen van de hoogleraren gereformeerd genoemd mocht worden. Om kennis te krijgen van de
gereformeerde leer, kregen ze privéonderwijs van een orthodoxe dominee uit Utrecht, dr. A.W.

vrouwelijke studenten
Op donderdagavond konden ze terecht bij een andere dominee, dr. J.D. de Lind van Wijngaarden,
een van de oprichters van de Gereformeerde Bond, die met hen over theologische en pastorale
zaken sprak. In 1899 stichtten de bezwaarde studenten een eigen vereniging, Voetius, naar de
grondlegger van de faculteit. De vereniging bestaat nog steeds en geldt als een kweekvijver van
predikanten die de Gereformeerde Bond zijn toegedaan.

De Gereformeerde Bond streefde sinds zijn oprichting in 1906 naar een bijzondere leerstoel voor
de gereformeerde dogmatiek. Hij werd bekleed door H. Visscher, gevolgd door J. Severijn, C.
Graafland en A. de Reuver, klinkende namen in de geschiedenis van de Bond. Niet altijd stonden
ze in de traditie die ze wilden vertegenwoordigen. Zo negeerde J. Severijn de vrouwelijke
studenten die zijn colleges volgden: dat had Anna Maria van Schurman met Voetius toch beter

Bron: Nederlands Dagblad